Tumor Immune Microenvironment and the Current Immunotherapy of Cholangiocarcinoma

Oct 27, 2023 | Immunology

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a highly heterogeneous malignancy originating from the epithelial system of the bile ducts, and its incidence in recent years is steadily increasing. The immune microenvironment of CCA is characterized by diversity and complexity, with a substantial presence of cancer-associated fibroblasts and immune cell infiltration, which plays a key role in regulating the distinctive biological behavior of cholangiocarcinoma, including tumor growth, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, invasion and metastasis.